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Svyatoslav Gromov
Svyatoslav Gromov

Milkmaid May 1977



By the time the Intensified Eradication Program began in 1967, smallpox was already eliminated in North America (1952) and Europe (1953). Cases were still occurring in South America, Asia, and Africa (smallpox was never widespread in Australia). The Program made steady progress toward ridding the world of this disease, and by 1971 smallpox was eradicated from South America, followed by Asia (1975), and finally Africa (1977).




Milkmaid May 1977



Ali Maow Maalin was the last person to have naturally acquired smallpox caused by variola minor. Maalin was a hospital cook in Merca, Somalia. On October 12, 1977, he rode with two smallpox patients in a vehicle from the hospital to the local smallpox office. On October 22, he developed a fever. At first healthcare workers diagnosed him with malaria, and then chickenpox. The smallpox eradication staff then correctly diagnosed him with smallpox on October 30. Maalin was isolated and made a full recovery. Maalin died of malaria on July 22, 2013, while working in the polio eradication campaign.


The smallpox vaccine, created by Edward Jenner in 1796, was the first successful vaccine to be developed. He observed that milkmaids who previously had caught cowpox did not catch smallpox and showed that a similar inoculation could be used to preventsmallpox in other people.


Cowpox was known in Europe for many centuries as a disease of cattle, occurring as ulcers on the teats that caused similar ulcers on the hands of milkmaids. A review of recent literature indicated that cows are an accidental and occasional host of cowpox virus and that cows, cats, and zoo animals are infected from a rodent reservoir host (12).


As well as the extravagant designs, Cobb also had the ability to turn relatively mundane uniforms or costumes into more sensual ensembles, as shown here with this milkmaid costume.Exhibitions:The Museum of Soho, London, 22nd March - 7th April 2018. Green & Stone of Chelsea, London, 4th-16th July 2019.Literature:Levy, Benjamin, 'Murray's Cabaret Club: Discovering Soho's Secret', (The History Press), 2019.For more information: www.murraysclubarchive.com


An image of a young milkmaid with an apron, a shawl on her shoulders and a scarf holding back her hair. There is a milk jug behind her, to the left. The bottom-to-top perspective seems intended to give the sensation that she is riding a mule. The light colors and straightforward subject matter contrast with Goyas last works, both in Madrid and in Bordeaux, when darker color schemes brought out more tragic scenes, as in his Black Paintings.


Their debut studio album, Calling on Youth, was self-released on their Raw Edge label in May 1977,[3] and won them unfavourable reviews: "Apple-cheeked Ade has a complexion that would turn a Devon milkmaid green with envy", reported Julie Burchill of the New Musical Express.[4] It was the first self-released punk album in the UK.[3]


The band released an EP in November 1977, One to Infinity. NME writer Tony Parsons commented: "tuneless, gormless, gutless... I like them a lot".[5] The EP was praised in a less contradictory manner by other critics, including Mick Mercer.[6]


Standen, Edith Appleton. "Fêtes Italiennes: Beauvais Tapestries after Boucher in the Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 12 (1977). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977. See more


Winternitz, Emanuel. "A Rabbi with Wings: Remarks on Rembrandt's Etching 'Abraham Entertaining the Angels'." Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol. 12 (1977). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977. See more


Renamed Nestlé S.A., the company continues its diversification strategy, buying US pharmaceutical and ophthalmic products manufacturer Alcon Laboratories. Declining breast-feeding rates lead some activists to question the baby food marketing strategies of companies like Nestlé. In 1977 they call on people to boycott Nestlé products.


  • processing.... Drugs & Diseases > Neurology Chorea in Adults Clinical Presentation Updated: Jul 01, 2019 Author: Pradeep C Bollu, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD more...

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Prognosis Patient Education Show All References Presentation History Patients with chorea may not initially be aware of the abnormal movements because they may be subtle. Patients can suppress the chorea temporarily and frequently camouflage some of the movements by incorporating them into semipurposeful activities (ie, parakinesia). The inability to maintain voluntary contraction (ie, motor impersistence), as is seen during manual grip (milkmaid grip) tests or tongue protrusion, is a characteristic feature of chorea and results in the dropping of objects and clumsiness. Muscle stretch reflexes are often hung-up and pendular. In severely affected patients, a peculiar dancelike gait may be noted. Depending on the underlying cause of the chorea, other motor symptoms include dysarthria, dysphagia, postural instability, ataxia, dystonia, and myoclonus. A brief discussion of the clinical manifestations of the most common choreatic diseases is presented.


Sydenham chorea is a major manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. With the 1992 modifications of the Jones criteria (see the Jones Criteria for Diagnosis of Rheumatic Fever calculator), it alone is sufficient to enable the physician to make the diagnosis of the first attack of acute rheumatic fever. Sydenham chorea is considered a disease of childhood; however, it also may be seen in adults. Rheumatic chorea is characterized by muscle weakness and the presence of chorea. The patients have the milkmaid grip sign, clumsy gait, and explosive bursts of dysarthric speech. Often, harlequin tongue, which pops in and out when the patient tries to hold it out, can be prominently demonstrated. [51, 52, 53]


Smallpox is unique in that it's the only infectious disease to have ever been eradicated. The disease is caused by the variola virus, which is closely related to the cowpox virus. Smallpox has been recorded in the human population for over 3,000 years. To put that in perspective the city of Rome was founded just shy of 3,000 years ago in 753 BC. The last natural case of smallpox occurred in Somalia in 1977, and since then there have only ever been accidental exposures to smallpox in a laboratory setting.


Effective vaccination also helped in the eradication process. The smallpox vaccine can prevent infection up to four days after initial exposure. The vaccine itself does not contain any of the variola virus but a related one called vaccinia. In 1796 Edward Jenner, the pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, carried out his famous experiment. Folklore claimed that milkmaids were immune to smallpox. Jenner tested this lore by exposing an eight year old boy to cowpox. Sure enough, further tests showed the boy to be immune to smallpox. Unlike malaria, once a person has been infected with smallpox and survived, he or she is immune to all further infections. Six other diseases have been identified as possible candidates for eradication by the Carter Center International Task Force for Disease Eradication: Guinea worm (dracunculiasis), poliomyelitis, mumps, rubella, lymphatic filariasis, cysticercosis, and measles. Scientists and international organizations are working with the Task Force to try and eliminate these diseases.


Bob Copper recorded Rolling in the Dewfrom Leslie Johnson for the BBC in between 1954 and 1957.This recording was included in 1977 on the Topic albumof country singers from Hampshire and Sussex,Songs and Southern Breezes.


You can hear the lyrics really clearly in our version, the dialogue betweena guy and a milkmaid. He is obviously trying it on with her and she's like,well, what's gonna happen next, then it's back and forth, and then she talks tohim about, well what if I become pregnant and then he's like, I'll just runaway, and she's like, I don't think so. She has some autonomy, but it's sungfrom the man's point of view, interestingly.


Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, an orthopoxvirus. Smallpox was once a feared and highly contagious viral disease that was found in all countries around the world. The main characteristic of the disease was a rash of blisters or pustules on the skin, which eventually dried up and left permanent scars.Smallpox can be deadly if the virus attacks the circulatory system, bone marrow or respiratory system. As recently as the 1960s, around 12 million people caught this highly contagious disease and approximately two million people died every year.The World Health Organization (WHO) mounted an aggressive worldwide campaign of immunisation and by 1977, the last naturally occurring case was detected in Somalia. Eradication was certified by a commission of scientists in 1979 and endorsed by the World Health Assembly the following year. Small stocks of smallpox virus remain in two designated international laboratories.Vaccination against smallpox is not recommended in Australia and is not on the National Immunisation Program Schedule. 041b061a72


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