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Solomon Konovalov
Solomon Konovalov

Buy Deuterium Gas

We offer deuterium in a variety of purities and concentrations. Download Safety Data Sheets or see the chart below to download the spec sheets for more information on buying deuterium tanks and cylinders from Linde.

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The latter is radioactive with a half-life of 12.3 years. There is hope, that in the future a lot of energy will be produced by fusioning deuterium and tritium. But this is enormously difficult, because such a fusion needs a temperature of several million degrees to run.

Pure Deuterium Oxide D2O, heavy water, very rare sample, must have for every element collector. Deuterium is the second isotope of Hydrogen and deuterium oxide is his compound with oxygen similar to H2O but more heavy and expensive!

The Pd/C-catalyzed H(2)-D(2) exchange reaction using a H(2)-D(2)O combination provided a general, efficient and environmentally friendly route for the preparation of deuterium gas (D(2)). H(2) sealed in a reaction flask was converted into nearly pure D(2), which could be used for the Pd/C-catalyzed one-pot reductive deuteration of various reducible functionalities and the chemoselective one-pot deuterogenation of olefin and acetylene. Additionally, we established the capturing method of the generated D(2) in a balloon, which was successfully applied to the Pd/C-catalyzed reductive mono-N-alkylation of a primary amine using nitrile as the alkylating reagent.

Chondroitin sulfate (CS)-glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear, negatively charged polysaccharides attached to CS proteoglycans that make up a major component of biological matrices throughout both central and peripheral tissues. The position of their attached sulfate groups to the CS disaccharide is predicted to influence protein-glycan interactions and biological function. Although traditional immunohistochemical analysis of CS-GAGs in biological tissues has provided information regarding changes in GAG abundance during developmental and disease states, quantitative analysis of their specific sulfation patterns is limited due to the inherent complexity of separating CS isomers. While methods have been developed to analyze and quantify sulfation isomers using liquid phase separation, new techniques are still needed to elucidate the full biology of CS-GAGs. Here, we examine ion mobility spectrometry and gas-phase hydrogen-deuterium exchange to resolve positional sulfation isomers in the most common sulfated 4S- and 6S-CS disaccharides. The mobilities for these two isomers are highly similar and could not be resolved effectively with any drift gas tested. In contrast, gas-phase hydrogen-deuterium exchange showed very different rates of deuterium uptake with several deuterium exchange reagents, thereby presenting a promising novel and rapid approach for resolving CS isomers.

Theoretical differential cross sections for 18.6-keV electrons scattering off molecular tritium are not available at the required precision for the \(m_\nu ^2\) measurements. While data from energy-loss measurements for gaseous tritium or deuterium from the former neutrino mass experiments in Troitsk and Mainz [12, 13] exist, the precision is not sufficient to achieve the KATRIN design sensitivities. Other more precise experimental data on the energy losses of electrons with energies near the tritium \(\upbeta \)-decay endpoint energy are only available for molecular hydrogen as the target gas [13,14,15]. In this paper we report the results of the in-situ measurements of the energy-loss function in the KATRIN experiment.

We begin this paper in Sect. 2 with a brief introduction to existing energy-loss function models and continue with the description of the novel semi-empirical parametrization developed in this work. In Sect. 3, the measurement approaches of the integral as well as the novel differential time-of-flight measurements are explained, including a description of the working principle of the electron gun used for these measurements. The analysis of the tritium data using a combined fit is presented in Sect. 4 including a detailed discussion of the systematic uncertainties of the measurements. Additional measurement results for the energy-loss function in deuterium gas are provided in Sect. 4.3. We conclude this paper in Sect. 5 by summarizing and discussing our results in the context of the neutrino-mass-sensitivity goal of KATRIN.

Aseev et al. [12] and Abdurashitov et al. [13] report on the measurements of energy losses of electrons in gaseous molecular hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. The shape of the energy-loss function was evaluated by fitting an empirical model to the integral energy spectra obtained with a mono-energetic electron source which generated a beam of electrons with kinetic energies near the endpoint energy of the tritium \(\upbeta \)-decay. Because of the low energy resolution of several eV, the shape of the energy-loss function was coarsely approximated by a Gaussian to represent electronic excitations and dissociation, and a one-sided Lorentzian to represent the continuum caused by ionization of the molecules [12].

The energy-loss parameters in Eq. (2) are extracted with a \(\chi ^2\)-fit to multiple datasets in integral and differential mode at different column densities. The systematic uncertainties in the energy-loss function (for example, those due to the measurement conditions, pile-up and background effects) are determined with Monte Carlo simulations (cf. Sect. 4.2). Results are given for molecular tritium and deuterium source gases below.

Measurements, similar to the ones described in Sect. 3, were performed with molecular deuterium as source gas in an early commissioning run of the KATRIN experiment. Four integral measurements at 0%, 5%, 35%, and 87% of the nominal source density and a single differential measurement at 5% were made. The data were processed and fit in the same manner as described in Sects. 3 and 4. For the combined \(\chi ^2\)-fit of the deuterium measurements, the best-fit result is obtained at a reduced \(\chi ^2=1.57(2)\). Similar to the tritium data, the uncertainties of the data points are rescaled by \(\sqrt\chi ^2/N_\mathrm dof\) to obtain a reduced \(\chi ^2=1\). The parameter values as well as the covariance matrix are provided in Tables 4 and 6. The slightly increased \(\chi ^2\) value and the larger model uncertainties (cf. Fig. 11) can be explained by the presence of a stronger detector pile-up in the integral data due to an electron rate that was twice as high as that of the tritium measurements combined with the availability of only one differential dataset. A full propagation of the systematic uncertainties was not performed for the deuterium measurements as the simulations for tritium showed that the measurements are strongly dominated by the statistical uncertainty. Furthermore, neither the systematic uncertainty due to methane freezing causing column-density drift nor the background generated from tritium ions is present in the absence of tritium.

Figure 11 shows the minor differences of the energy-loss models for deuterium and tritium, as the electronic excitation states are shifted to lower energies on the order of 100 \(\hbox meV\).Footnote 4 Extrapolating again to \(E_\mathrm max\) the energy loss function results in a mean energy loss of \(\overline\varDelta E(\mathrm D_2)=30.64(1)_\mathrm fit\) eV, for the dominant deuterium isotopologs. This mean energy-loss value is 0.15 eV smaller than for tritium isotopologs, but we should not forget that we extrapolate the energy-loss function in energy by a factor 200 and we do not account for systematic uncertainties here for this consistency check.Footnote 5

A series of precision measurements of the energy-loss function of 18.6-keV electrons scattering off molecular tritium and deuterium gas was performed. The measurements were carried out in the KATRIN setup by using a pulsed beam of monoenergetic and angular selected electrons from a photoelectron source. The measurements were made in integral and differential time-of-flight measurement modes.

Distributor of pure gases including deuterium. Deuterium available in cylinders with capacities of 1,321 gal., 475.56 gal. & 26.42 gal. Cylinder style can be specified. Cylinder temperature should not exceed 125 degrees F. Markets served include biotechnology, chemical, petrochemical, environmental & food.

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m.

IN connexion with previous systematic investigations1 on the viscosity of gases at low temperatures, we have studied hydrogen and deuterium gas. As is well known, such investigation is interesting in connexion with the theoretical calculations made respectively by Uehling2 and Massey and Mohr3.

The Augsburg-based chemists therefore replaced some of the zinc atoms with copper atoms, whose electron shells more selectively filter out deuterium and does so at higher temperatures. Michael Hirscher and his staff at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems and researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed this property in various tests. Among other things, they determined the quantities of deuterium and normal hydrogen that the material absorbs from a mixture of equal parts of the two isotopes at various temperatures. They found that at minus 279 degrees Fahrenheit it stores 12 times more deuterium. 041b061a72


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